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Methodology and Interpretation Vieda Skultans. Online Memories of Migration Oral History as Source and Methodology: Aspects of Multidirectional Communication Life Story and Dialectics of Folklore Genre Broken Connections to the Home: Dialogues in Social Contexts: Belonging or Otherness beyond the Finnish—Russian Border Dialogue with Our Painful Past: Personal Narratives of Elderly Kosovar Albanians Refugees from Latvia in — Memories and Dialogue Sanita Reinsone.

Rebuilding the Bridge between Families: Oral History and Situational Analysis at Work Communication between Private and Soviet Public Space Oral History Interview as Identity Svesais starp savejiem online dating Dynamics in the Images of History: Narrators, Archives, and Researchers The Semantic Genealogy of the Archive.

Circulation of Memories Knut Djupedal. Migration Stories — Selection and Method Svesais starp savejiem online dating an Emigre Narrative to its Country of Origin. At the same time, this collection also touches on issues of research ethics and oral history methodology and its Svesais starp savejiem online dating to the study of topical, socially sensitive issues as well as innovative publications and projects.

The first section, Methodology and Interpretation, is about issues and possibilities related to methodology and interpretation of oral history. Vieda Skultans invites the reader to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of self—reflection in oral history analysis and interpretation.

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In focusing on the stories of Finnish emigrants, Anne Heimo examines the influence of the Internet on the public and private processes of remembering, a never—ending process that participates in the constructing of social history. Thomas Loer explains the advantages of objective hermeneutics when analysing sociological topics. His paper, as well as the paper by Maarja Merivoo—Parro, touches on issues of research ethics and the publication of oral history sources.

The conference took place with the financial support of the European Regional Development Fund, project no. Sanita Reinsone, a researcher at the Archives of Latvian Folklore, concentrates on interviews with two women whose lives were dramatically altered because of their resistance to the Soviet regime after World War II.

Both of them use the interview to tell about the destiny of their families, that is, as a family—story, thus redeeming the untold memories of their. The fourth Svesais starp savejiem online dating, Archives and Researchers, focuses on the dialogue between researchers and sources in archives.

The Finnish researcher poses the question Svesais starp savejiem online dating how to legitimise the event of the interview and how to include the historical facts of a life into an archive. In the context of the revolution, Estonian oral history researcher Tiiu Jaago Svesais starp savejiem online dating how external factors influence the remembering of an event.

She also touches on the issue of what methodological aspects a contemporary researcher must take into account when analysing memories collected in the —30s. Pauliina Latvala from Finland and Malin Thor Tureby from Sweden also tackle the issue of how a researcher should evaluate, analyse and select interviews from collections created by other researchers.

Finally, readers can familiarise themselves with the way in which materials Svesais starp savejiem online dating the archives of the Centre of Oral. One of the ways to involve society in a dialogue is to use oral history sources to create expositions and publish books. The final section of the book, Circulation of Memories, Svesais starp savejiem online dating devoted to this movement of memories. A separate section of the project is devoted to the use of oral history sources to create an interactive exhibition.

The topic of using oral history sources in the creation of a museum is continued by Maija Hinkle, founder of the Latvians Abroad — Museum and Research Centre, who writes about the return to Latvia of memories and stories told by Latvian refugees from World War II.

Candice Lau concentrates on Estonian stories and searches for ways to promote the acquisition of history and strengthen the emotional link between a museum and its visitors. In her paper about a book of Estonian—Siberian memories, Anu Korb writes about how a researcher can turn original source material into publications and books.

Make to the Production of History and Life Histories? The intensification of polarised views Svesais starp savejiem online dating do no service to either side. Indeed, I will be extolling the advantages of this position.

In doing so, I will be drawing upon the arguments Svesais starp savejiem online dating standpoint theorists as well as some of my own work in Latvia and Ukraine. It seems curious that theoretical problems that have engaged philosophers, social scientists, and feminist epistemologists for the past. Methodology and Interpretation few Svesais starp savejiem online dating seem to have by—passed historians using oral history methods.

The Svesais starp savejiem online dating revolve around issues relating to objectivity versus subjectivity, the erasure of personal fingerprints, and the relationship between power and Svesais starp savejiem online dating. The problems with Svesais starp savejiem online dating versus subjectivity are posed in their starkest form by the feminist philosopher Linda Code.

In its most pared—down form the empiricist tradition has its roots in the behaviourist stimulus—response theory. Interviewers are instructed to give precisely the same questions, the same probes in order to produce replicable, reliable answers.

There are pluses to this kind Svesais starp savejiem online dating work, not least the huge grasp of their work. And yet what is left out are the personal fingerprints and the relationship between the researcher and the research results. These should be open to public scrutiny, in a way that is difficult when large numbers of interviewers, however skilled, are employed.

Objective approaches to subjectivity are inappropriate and their quest may prove to be a mirage. As the philosopher Thomas Nagel has argued, being objective about subjectivity is logically impossible.

As anthropologists have been arguing for some time, researchers are themselves embodied research instruments. The social background, life trajectories, personal qualities, and indeed the emotional involvement of the researchers will all affect the stories that are told. No two researchers will obtain precisely identical stories. The emotional commitment of the researcher to the story of those being interviewed also plays a formative role. Social scientists have long been wary of too much emotion and too much involvement.

But lack of emotion may also be inappropriate. So—called neutrality, even coldness, can be a disguise for emotions such as fear and anger. Methodology and Interpretation question that should be asked is not how much or how little is the appropriate amount of emotion, but what one does with that emotion Kleinman and Copp A degree of self—awareness is necessary here — what is referred to as self—reflexivity in a literature that has received its fair share of disparagement.

But contrary to some critics, self—awareness is not a form of narcissism.

The tragedy of Narcissus was not his absorption in his own image but his inability to recognise the image for what it was, namely his own, and to examine it.

The fault lay not in looking at himself, but in not looking long and hard enough. The kind of misleading stories Mead obtained might not have been taken at face value had Mead been more attuned to the relational aspects of ethnographic work Mead Svesais starp savejiem online dating philosophers refer to these contextual influences with the argument that all knowledge is situated.

Amongst the most important aspects impinging upon situated knowledge are gender, Svesais starp savejiem online dating, ethnicity, and age, but there are many others. We can trace the outlines of these epistemological situations in which we have some background information about the researcher and the context of the research.

However, as I already stated, these kinds Svesais starp savejiem online dating critical pathways are difficult to pursue in research involving large numbers of interviewers. The interpretation and use of life histories is divorced from the circumstances of their acquisition, facilitating their appropriation for our own academic or professional purposes.

What I think he meant was that experiential knowledge acquired through all the senses was reduced to propositional knowledge. Svesais starp savejiem online Svesais starp savejiem online dating more important, they suggest, is the acquisition of emotional knowledge: This kind of analysis and use of. Methodology and Interpretation experience must of necessity be absent from large scale projects involving many interviewers. Doing oral history interviews for oneself creates a moral obligation to represent the story of the researched in a way that is acceptable to the people being researched.

Of course, this kind of moral responsibility can be evaded in any circumstances but it is more likely to be evaded when the writer has not had face—to—face contact in interview situations. However, revisiting a life history many years after the original interview may also loosen the moral prescriptiveness of the original human exchange.

I am thinking here of the posthumous existence of Burt, a working class man suffering from multiple sclerosis and first interviewed by Catherine Riessman in the s Riessman ; What would he make of the re—analysis of his failing sexuality and disability so many years after his death? Of course, he is no longer here to tell us.

Each oral history interview opens up the possibility of a posthumous existence. The nature of that existence is in large measure shaped by the circumstances in Svesais starp savejiem online dating a life—history was elicited.

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This is particularly true for the peoples of the former Soviet Union, many of whose lives are marked by scars that Svesais starp savejiem online dating beyond the experience, if not the comprehension, of most Westerners. The site and setting of the interview therefore come to acquire both an experientially enlarging and an ethically directive role. In other words, the experience of the interview imposes constraints on how life history material is presented.

Not all oral historians are in agreement with this position. An extreme example of decontextualisation is seen in some of the work of Svesais starp savejiem online dating oral historian Alessandro Portelli and his study of steel workers in the Svesais starp savejiem online dating town of Terni in central Italy, which is, as it happens, also his birth town.

Portelli claimed Svesais starp savejiem online dating he refused to enter the steelworks where the accounts of his informants were set because he did not want to contaminate their Svesais starp savejiem online dating with his own subjective perceptions. He wanted the poetic Svesais starp savejiem online dating and drama of the Svesais starp savejiem online dating texts to stand untampered and unscathed.

There is a laudable aspect to this approach insofar as it democratises and honours the creativity of everyday experience. Portelli is aware that the physical and social context can distract and diminish the power of words Portelli ; On the other hand, R. This tendency can lead in diverse directions.