It was the successor to the Yuan dynasty and the predecessor of the short-lived Shun dynastywhich was in turn succeeded by the Qing
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction. Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy and a standing army of 1, troops. There were enormous projects of construction, including the restoration of
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Grand Canalthe restoration of the Great Wall it is seen today, and the establishment of the Forbidden City in Beijing during the first quarter of the 15th century.
The Ming dynasty is, for many reasons, generally known as Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction period of stable effective government. It had long seen most secure and unchallenged ruling house that China had known up until that time.
Its institutions were generally preserved by the following Qing dynasty. The civil service dominated government to an unprecedented degree at this time. For a brief period during the Ming dynasty northern Vietnam was included in the Ming dynasty's territory. Outside of metropolitan areas, Ming China was divided into thirteen provinces for administrative purposes. These provinces were divided along traditional and to a degree also natural lines.
The shortest was his son's reign, the Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Emperorwho ruled for only one Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction in The Mongol -led Yuan dynasty — ruled before
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction establishment of the Ming dynasty.
Alongside institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, other explanations for the Yuan's demise included overtaxing areas hard-hit by crop failure, Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction of irrigation projects. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted, including the Red Turbans in Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Red Turbans were affiliated with the Buddhist secret society of the White Lotuswhich propagated Manichean beliefs in the struggle of good against evil and worship of the Maitreya Buddha.
Zhu enlisted the aid of many able advisors, including the artillery specialists Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen. Zhu cemented his power in the south by eliminating his arch rival and rebel leader Chen Youliang in the Battle of Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Poyang in This battle was—in terms of personnel—one of the largest naval battles in history.
After the dynastic head of the Red Turbans suspiciously died in while hosted as a guest of Zhu, the latter made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital in Instead of the traditional way of naming a dynasty after the first ruler's home district, Zhu Yuanzhang's choice of 'Ming' or 'Brilliant' for his dynasty followed a Mongol precedent of an uplifting title.
Although the White Lotus had fomented his rise to power, the emperor later denied that he had ever been a member of their organization and suppressed the religious movement after he became emperor. Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty, drew on both past institutions and new approaches in order create 'jiaohua' meaning 'civilization' as an organic Chinese governing process.
This included a building of schools at all levels and an increased study of the classics as well as books on morality. Also included was the distribution of Neo-Confucian ritual Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction and a new civil service examination system for recruitment into the bureaucracy. The Hongwu Emperor immediately set to rebuilding state infrastructure.
The goal was to have soldiers become Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction farmers in order to sustain themselves while not fighting or training. Although a Confucian, the Hongwu Emperor had a deep distrust for the scholar-officials of the gentry class and was
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction afraid to have them beaten in court for offenses.
They were partly responsible for the loss oflives in several major purges over three decades of his rule. The Ming dynasty took control of Hami under a small kingdom called Qara Del in and turned it into Hami Prefecture  Inthe Ming dynasty defeated the ruler of Turpan.
Tensions rose, and Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction he led a campaign east to confront China, even succeeding in capturing Hami from the Oirat Mongol
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Henshen. Ali traded control of Hami with the Ming, then Henshen's Mongols, in numerous battles spanning the reigns of his son Ahmed and his grandson Mansur   in a drawn-out and complex series of conflicts now known as the Ming—Turpan conflict.
Inthe Ming dynasty annexed the areas of the southwest that had once been part of the Kingdom of Daliwhich was annihilated by the Mongols in the s and became established as the Yunnan Province under Yuan dynasty later on. By the end of the 14th century, somemilitary colonists settled some 2, muacres of land in what Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction now Yunnan and Guizhou.
Areas with majority ethnic Chinese were governed according to Ming laws and policies; where native tribal groups dominated had their own set of laws while tribal chiefs promised to maintain order and send tribute to the Ming court in return for needed goods. The Mingshi — the official history of the Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction dynasty compiled later by the Qing court in —states that the Ming established itinerant commanderies overseeing Tibetan administration while also renewing titles of ex-Yuan dynasty officials from Tibet and conferring new princely titles on leaders of Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Buddhist sects.
Wylie states that censorship in Mingshi in favor of bolstering the Ming emperor's prestige and reputation at all costs obfuscates the nuanced history of Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming era.
Goldstein writes that the Ming had no real administrative authority over Tibet since the various titles given to Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction leaders already in power did not confer authority as earlier Mongol Yuan titles had; according to him, "the Ming emperors merely recognized political reality.
The Ming initiated sporadic armed intervention in Tibet during the 14th century, while at times the Tibetans also used successful armed resistance against Ming forays. In the first half of the Ming era, scholar-officials would rarely mention the of merchants in society while writing their local gazetteer ;  officials were certainly capable of funding their own public works projects, a symbol of their virtuous political leadership.
Writings family instructions for lineage groups in the late Ming period display the fact that one no longer inherited his position in the categorization of the four occupations Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction descending order: The Hongwu Emperor believed that only government couriers and lowly retail merchants should have the right to travel far outside their home town. The scholar-officials' dependence upon the economic activities of the merchants became more than a trend when it was semi-institutionalized by the state in the mid Ming era.
Qiu Jun —a scholar-official from Hainanargued that the state should only mitigate market affairs during times of pending crisis and that Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction were the best gauge in determining the strength of a nation's riches in resources.
This was a gradual process where the state supplied northern frontier armies with enough grain by granting merchants licenses to trade in salt in return for their shipping services. The failure of these stern regulations against silver mining prompted ministers such as the censor Liu Hua jinshi graduate in to support the baojia system of communal self-defense units to patrol areas and arrest 'mining bandits' kuangzei. The Hongwu Emperor was unaware of economic inflation even as he continued to hand out multitudes of banknotes as awards; bypaper currency was worth only 0.
In a prelude to a three-year-long civil war beginning in The Jianwen Emperor became engaged in a political
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction with his uncle Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan.
The emperor was aware of the ambitions of his princely uncles, establishing measures to limit their authority. The militant Zhu Di, given charge over the area encompassing Beijing to watch the Mongols on the frontier, was the most feared of these princes. Under the guise of rescuing the young Jianwen Emperor from corrupt officials, Zhu Di personally led forces in the the palace Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Nanjing was burned to the ground, along with the Jianwen Emperor, his wife, mother, and courtiers.
Zhu Di assumed the throne as the Yongle Emperor — ; his reign is universally viewed by scholars as a "second founding" of the Ming dynasty since he reversed many of his father's policies.
The Yongle Emperor demoted Nanjing as a secondary capital and in announced the new capital of China was be at his power base in Beijing.
Construction of a new city there lasted from toemploying hundreds of thousands of workers daily. After lying dormant and dilapidated for decades, the Grand Canal was restored under the Yongle Emperor's rule from — The impetus for restoring the canal was to solve the perennial problem of shipping grain north to Beijing. Shipping the annual 4, one shi Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction equal to liters was made difficult with an inefficient system of shipping grain through the East China Sea or by several different inland canals that necessitated the transferring of grain onto several different barge types in the process, including shallow and deep-water barges.
The Yongle Emperor commissioned someworkers to dredge the canal bed in western Shandong and built a series of fifteen canal locks. Although the Yongle Emperor ordered episodes of bloody purges like his father—including
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction execution of Fang Xiaoruwho refused to draft the proclamation of his succession—the emperor had a different attitude about the scholar-officials. Yet the scholar-officials were not the only political group that the Yongle Emperor had to cooperate with and appease.
Historian Michael Chang points out that the Yongle Emperor was an "emperor on horseback" who often traversed between two capitals like in the Mongol tradition and constantly led expeditions into Mongolia.
Beginning inthe Yongle Emperor entrusted his favored eunuch commander Zheng He — as the naval admiral for a gigantic new fleet of ships designated for international tributary missions.
The had sent diplomatic missions over land and west since the Han dynasty BC— AD and had been engaged in private overseas trade leading all the way to East Africa for centuries —culminating in the Song and Yuan dynasties—but no government-sponsored tributary Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction of this grandeur size had ever been assembled before.
The enormous tributary missions were discontinued after the death of Zheng He, yet his death Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction only one of many culminating factors which brought the missions Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction an end. The Yongle Emperor had staged enormous invasions deep
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction Mongol territory, competing with Korea for lands in Manchuria as well.
The chief eunuch Wang Zhen encouraged the Zhengtong Emperor r. Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction the battle that ensued, his force of 50, troops were decimated by Esen's army.
On 3 Septemberthe Zhengtong Emperor was captured and held in captivity by the Mongols—an event known as the Tumu Crisis. The Mongols held the Zhengtong Emperor for ransom.
However, this scheme was foiled once the emperor's younger brother assumed the throne as the Jingtai Emperor r. Holding the Zhengtong Emperor in captivity was a useless bargaining chip by the Mongols as long as another sat on his throne, Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction they released him back into Ming China.
The Mongol threat to China was at its greatest level in the 15th century, although periodic raiding continued throughout the dynasty. The Tianshun Emperor's reign was a troubled one and Mongol forces within the Ming military structure continued to be problematic. Mongols serving the Ming military also became increasingly circumspect as the Chinese began to heavily distrust their Mongol subjects after the Tumu Crisis.
A massive drought in August forced over five hundred Mongol families living on the steppe to seek refuge in China, entering through the Piantou Pass of northwestern Shanxi. Robinson states that "these developments must also have fed suspicion about Mongols living in North China, which in turn exacerbated Mongol feelings of insecurity. However, no direct link can be found between the decision by the Ming Mongols in Beijing to join the  coup and activities of steppe Mongols in the northwest.
On August 7,the Chinese general Cao Qin died and his Ming troops of Mongol descent staged Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction coup against the Tianshun Emperor out of fear of being next on his purge-list of those who aided him in the Wresting the Gate Incident. After a failed plot to have Grand Secretary Li Xian send a memorial to the throne to pardon Cao Qin for killing Lu Gao, head of the Jinyiwei who had been investigating him, Cao Qin began the assault on Dongan Gate, East Chang'an Gate, and West Chang'an Gate, setting fire to the western and eastern gates; these fires Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction extinguished later in the day Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction pouring rain.
Ming rulers faced the challenge of balancing Central Asian trade and military threats against dangerous but profitable sea powers. The questions were cultural, political, and economic. Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction historian Arthur Waldron declares that the early rulers faced the question "Was the Ming be essentially a Chinese version of the Yuan, or was it to be something new?
The dynasty was basically reshaped by it successes and frustrations Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction dealing with the two sides of the outside world. The early Ming emperors from the Hongwu Emperor to the Zhengde Emperor continued Yuan practices such as hereditary military institutions, demanding Korean and Muslim concubines and eunuchs, having Mongols
Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction in the Ming military, patronizing Tibetan Buddhism, with the early Emperors seeking to project themselves as "universal rulers" to various peoples such as Central Asian Muslims, Tibetans, and Mongols.
Inthe vice president of the Ministry of War burned the court records documenting Zheng He's voyages; it was one of many events signalling China's shift to an inward Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction policy. Instead of mounting a counterattack, Ming authorities chose to shut down coastal facilities and starve the pirates out; all foreign trade was to be conducted by the state under the guise of formal tribute missions.
The low point in relations between Ming China and Japan occurred during the rule of the great Japanese warlord Hideyoshiwho in announced he was Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction to conquer China. In two campaigns Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction known collectively as the Imjin War the Japanese fought with the Korean and Ming armies. Though initially successful, the Japanese forces were pushed back southward after the intervention of Ming China.
With the combined strength of Ming and Korean forces on land, and the naval Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction of Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin at sea, the campaign ended in defeat for the Japanese and their armies were forced to withdraw from the peninsula. However, the victory came at relatively large cost to the Ming government's treasury: In September he had this man sent back to his native country with a letter announcing the founding of the Ming dynasty to his ruler i.
The Portuguese sent a large subsequent expedition in to enter port at Guangzhou to trade with the Chinese merchants there. Despite initial hostilities, by the Portuguese were sending annual trade missions to Shangchuan Island. Chinese trade relations with the Dutch began to improve after and in the Japanese cut off trade with the Yuan chonghuan wife sexual dysfunction due to the Shimabara Rebellionthus impoverishing Macau and leading to its decline as a major port.
From China the major exports were silk and porcelain. The Dutch East India Company alone handled the trade of 6 million porcelain items from China to Europe between the years to In one case a galleon to the Spanish territories in the New World carried over 50, pairs of silk stockings.
In return China imported mostly silver from Peruvian and Mexican mines, transported via Manila. Chinese merchants were active in these trading ventures, and many emigrated to such places as the Philippines and Borneo to take advantage of the new commercial opportunities.
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At the start of the dynasty, the Chinese empire continued to be the hegemonic power in East Asia. During the following century of British rule, Hong Kong grew into a hub of Cantonese culture, and has remained as such since the handover in Retrieved 11 July Zeng Guofan's strategy was to rely on local gentry to raise a new type of military organization from those provinces that the Taiping rebels directly threatened.
Hong Kong Island was first colonised by the British Empire in with a population of only 7,; however, it was in that Hong Kong truly became a British colony , when the British also colonised the New Territories which constitute There were originally 18 provinces, all of which in China proper, but later this number was increased to 22, with Manchuria and Xinjiang being divided or turned into provinces.
History of the Ming dynasty
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